ADCY2 encodes an isoform of the adenylate cyclase gene. Adenylate cyclase is an integral membrane signaling enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). cAMP is a secondary messenger that activates the protein kinase A (PKA) pathways that lead to changes in cellular metabolism and gene transcription patterns. ADCY2 is uniquely expressed in the brain.
Adenylate cyclases are activated downstream of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) through heterotrimeric G protein signaling. Many GPCRs are implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, and many psychiatric drugs target multiple receptors at once. ADCY2 is a signal integrator of GPCR signaling in the brain.