HLA-DQA1 codes for the alpha 1 subunit of the HLA-DQ MHC cell surface receptor, which is important for organ donation and immune diseases. There are four common alleles: DQA1*0101, *0102, *0103, *0104, with 33 total. The combination with HLA-DQB1 forms the modern DQ serotypes: DQ2, DQ4-9. DQ1 was split into 5 and 6, while 3 was removed for lacking specificity.
Missense variants C34Y (rs1129740) and F41S (rs1071630) were replicated in studies of South Asians and white Europeans to be associated with SSNS(Steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome)[PMID 25349203]. rs2187668 was significantly associated with idiopathic membranous nephropathy in French, Dutch, and British [PMID 21323541].