A recent (2015) review SNPs influencing prostate cancer risk or progression is here. For a relatively recent (2014) summary of 77 independent risk loci associated in GWAS studies with prostate cancer, listing one SNP per locus, see [PMID 24497837].
A report that attracted some media attention (January 2008; 10.1056/NEJMoa075819) of a model for risk of prostate cancer was based on a combination of 5 SNPs plus family history, which the authors believe may account for 50% of the cancers. Although the model estimates risk, clinical parameters (such as age of onset and disease progression) are not predicted by this model. The 5 SNPs chosen to represent five regions of chromosomes 17q12, 17q24.3 and 8q24 (three regions) are:
- rs4430796, from ch 17q12
- rs1859962, from ch 17q24.3
- rs16901979, from ch 8q24 (region 2)
- rs6983267, from 8q24 (region 3)
- rs1447295, from 8q24 (region 1)
Risk for prostate cancer (shown here as odds ratio, with CI) increases cumulatively based on the number of SNP risk genotypes for these 5 (or, second set of numbers, with family history counted as a 6th factor) as follows:
1: 1.50 (CI: 1.18-1.92); 1.62 (1.27-2.08)
2: 1.96 (1.54-2.49); 2.07 (1.62-2.64)
3: 2.21 (1.70-2.89); 2.71 (2.08-3.53)
4: 4.47 (2.93-6.80); 4.76 (3.31-6.84)
5: 4.47 (2.93-6.80); 9.46 (3.62-24.72)
6: 9.46 (3.62-24.72)
Based on the data in this study, family history on its own (in the absence of any SNP information) yields an odds ratio of 2.22 (CI: 1.83-2.68) and can account for ~10% of the population attributable risk for prostate cancer.10.1056/NEJMoa075819
Separate from the risk of developing prostate cancer is the risk to a (known) prostate cancer patient of actually dying from the disease (known as prostate cancer specific mortality, or PCSM). A set of 5 SNPs was reported in 2011 to offer some predictive significance with regard to PCSM, with hazard ratios of 1.25 and 1.5 for carriers of 3 and 4 (or 5) of the risk alleles, respectively. Carriers of these risk genotypes are identified by genosets gs242 and gs243.
One SNP has been found to be associated not only with prostate cancer in general, but also specifically with aggressive prostate cancer [PMID 18073375]:
Another SNP has been found to be related to the aggressive form (PMID pending):
There is evidence that high intake of phytoestrogens substantially reduce prostate cancer risk among men with a variation of rs2987983 in the promoter region of the estrogen receptor-beta gene [PMID 16921512]
 The rs1447295 location could be responsible for about seven percent of prostate cancer cases in white men of north European descent. Thus, taken together with rs6983267, these two genetic changes could account for as much as one quarter of prostate cancer cases in white men. The increased risk conferred by these loci was observed for all age groups studied.
[PMID 17085659] Variants of the hK2 protein gene (KLK2) predict the presence of prostate cancer at biopsy
[PMID 17066444] Frequent consumption of fatty fish and marine fatty acids appears to reduce the risk of prostate cancer, and this association is modified by genetic variation in the COX-2 gene.
[PMID 16638864] In this study, we identified SNPs in LIG4, ERCC2, and CYP2D6 genes as putative markers to predict individuals at risk for complications arising from radiation therapy in Prostate cancer.