|(A;A)||1||Likely better response to antidepressants if female|
|(A;G)||1||less likely depressed in response to stress|
|(G;G)||1||Likely better response to antidepressants if male|
In this 2013 article titled "Translational evidence for the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in stress-related psychiatric illnesses", six previous studies of rs1049353 were reviewed. They concluded that the minor A allele may provide protection against depression in response to stress. The gene variants also affected response to antidepressant medication. One study they cited showed that in females, the A allele may confer greater antidepressant responsiveness, but another study showed that in a population of males, the result was opposite and the G allele associated with greater antidepressant responsiveness.
[PMID 18579347] Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene: impact on antidepressant treatment response and emotion processing in major depression.Based on a 2008 study of 256 Caucasian patients being treated for depression, carriers of a rs1049353(G) allele were less likely to respond favorably, particularly if they were females with comorbid anxiety.
[PMID 19443135] The association between cannabinoid receptor 1 gene (CNR1) and cannabis dependence symptoms in adolescents and young adults
[PMID 20195480] The Cannabinoid 1 Receptor (CNR1) 1359 G/A Polymorphism Modulates Susceptibility to Ulcerative Colitis and the Phenotype in Crohn's Disease
[PMID 18213623] rs806368(C) together with rs1049353(A) or rs1049353(G) make up a haplotype associated with PTSD, with the C-A haplotype somewhat associated (p=0.04) with higher risk of PTSD and the C-G haplotype associated (p=0.01) with a lower risk of PTSD.
[PMID 20587580] Polymorphisms in the endocannabinoid-receptor 1 in relation to fat mass distribution
[PMID 21892520] The association of the rs1049353 polymorphism of the CNR1 gene with hypoadiponectinemia
[PMID 22085192] Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Gene is Associated with Alcohol Dependence
[PMID 16917946] Cannabis receptor haplotype associated with fewer cannabis dependence symptoms in adolescents.
[PMID 17292652] No evidence for an involvement of variants in the cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) in obesity in German children and adolescents.
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[PMID 17881126] No association of CNR1 gene variations with susceptibility to schizophrenia.
[PMID 17942526] Polymorphisms of the cannabinoid 1 receptor gene and cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.
[PMID 18179391] Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) and impulsivity in southwest California Indians.
[PMID 18606954] Cannabinoid receptor 1 gene association with nicotine dependence.
[PMID 18776593] Cannabinoid type-1 receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with central obesity in a Southern Brazilian population.
[PMID 19014633] Lack of association of genetic variants in genes of the endocannabinoid system with anorexia nervosa.
[PMID 19016476] Evidence for association between polymorphisms in the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) gene and cannabis dependence.
[PMID 19018721] Genetic variation in cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) is associated with derangements in lipid homeostasis, independent of body mass index.
[PMID 19052543] Interaction between two independent CNR1 variants increases risk for cocaine dependence in European Americans: a replication study in family-based sample and population-based sample.
[PMID 19093002] CB1 expression is attenuated in Fallopian tube and decidua of women with ectopic pregnancy.
[PMID 19335651] Candidate genes for cannabis use disorders: findings, challenges and directions.
[PMID 19659925] Association of CNR1 and FAAH endocannabinoid gene polymorphisms with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: evidence for synergistic effects.
[PMID 19886064] The implication of CNR1 gene's polymorphisms in the modulation of endocannabinoid system effects.
[PMID 20033240] Eating disorders: the current status of molecular genetic research.
[PMID 20080186] Investigation of CNR1 and FAAH endocannabinoid gene polymorphisms in bipolar disorder and major depression.
[PMID 20192949] CNR1 gene polymorphisms in addictive disorders: a systematic review and a meta-analysis.
[PMID 20204253] G1359A polymorphism of the cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) and insulin resistance in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.
[PMID 20415562] Role of genetic variation in the cannabinoid type 1 receptor gene (CNR1) in the pathophysiology of human obesity.
[PMID 20631561] Endocannabinoid Pro129Thr FAAH functional polymorphism but not 1359G/A CNR1 polymorphism is associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain.
[PMID 20838400] Are endocannabinoid type 1 receptor gene (CNR1) polymorphisms associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal Polish women?
[PMID 21129839] A common variation in the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CNR1) gene is associated with pre-eclampsia in the Central European population.
[PMID 21695734] Cannabinoid type 1 receptor gene polymorphisms are not associated with olanzapine-induced weight gain.
[PMID 22393204] Cannabinoid Receptor Genotype Moderation of the Effects of Childhood Physical Abuse on Anhedonia and Depression.
[PMID 22194214] Replication study of 10 genes showing evidence for association with multiple sclerosis: validation of TMEM39A, IL12B and CBLB [correction of CLBL] genes
[PMID 22826533] Genetic variability in the endocannabinoid system and 12-week clinical response to citalopram treatment: the role of the CNR1, CNR2 and FAAH genes
[PMID 23372171] Elevated Anandamide and Related N-Acylethanolamine Levels Occur in the Peripheral Blood of Women With Ectopic Pregnancy and Are Mirrored by Changes in Peripheral Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Activity
[PMID 24322329] Role of Genetic Variation in the Cannabinoid Receptor Gene (CNR1) (G1359A Polymorphism) on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factors After Liraglutide Treatment in Obese Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
[PMID 24407958] Risky alcohol consumption in young people is associated with the fatty acid amide hydrolase gene polymorphism C385A and affective rating of drug pictures
[PMID 22920733] Investigation of endocannabinoid system genes suggests association between peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-alpha gene (PPARA) and schizophrenia.
[PMID 23010766] Failure to extinguish fear and genetic variability in the human cannabinoid receptor 1.
[PMID 23337343] Genetic variation in the cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) (G1359A polymorphism) and their influence on anthropometric parameters and metabolic parameters under a high monounsaturated vs. high polyunsaturated fat hypocaloric diets.
[PMID 23407780] Screening genetic variability at the CNR1 gene in both major depression etiology and clinical response to citalopram treatment.
[PMID 23422373] CNR1 gene and risk of the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia.
[PMID 25093427] Selected CNR1 polymorphisms and hyperandrogenemia as well as fat mass and fat distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome
[PMID 25136364] Cannabinoid receptor 1 gene polymorphisms and nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and in healthy controls
[PMID 25766592] Effects of a High-Protein/Low-Carbohydrate versus a Standard Hypocaloric Diet on Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors during 9 Months: Role of a Genetic Variation in the Cannabinoid Receptor Gene (CNR1) (G1359A Polymorphism)
[PMID 26071625] Brain structural and clinical changes after first episode psychosis: Focus on cannabinoid receptor 1 polymorphisms
[PMID 24980155] Role of CNR1 polymorphisms in moderating the effects of psychosocial adversity on impulsivity in adolescents
[PMID 29353877] Gene variants and educational attainment in cannabis use: mediating role of DNA methylation.