||prone to higher nicotine dependence?
||prone to higher nicotine dependence, more impulsive/sensation seeking
|?|| (C;C) (C;T) (T;T) ||28|
rs4648317, a SNP in the dopamine D2 receptor DRD2 gene, has been linked to higher rates of smoking and higher nicotine dependence scores, based on a study of ~220 adolescents. The risk allele rs4648317(T).[PMID 18434921]
[PMID 19373123] Genetic variants altering dopamine D2 receptor expression or function modulate the risk of opiate addiction and the dosage requirements of methadone substitution
[PMID 19512960] Genetic diagnostics of functional variants of the human dopamine D2 receptor gene
[PMID 19968402] Evaluation of genetic variability in the dopamine receptor D2 in relation to behavioral inhibition and impulsivity/sensation seeking: an exploratory study with d-amphetamine in healthy participants
[PMID 18077373] Polymorphisms in human dopamine D2 receptor gene affect gene expression, splicing, and neuronal activity during working memory.
[PMID 22244514] Sensorimotor gating and D2 receptor signalling: evidence from a molecular genetic approach.