GLUT1 deficiency syndrome
GLUT1 deficiency, also known as De Vivo disease, is typically an autosomal dominant, genetic metabolic disorder associated with a deficiency of GLUT1, the protein that transports glucose across the blood brain barrier. Also known as GLUT1 deficiency syndrome 1, it has an estimated birth incidence of 1 in 90,000. This birth incidence translates to an estimated prevalence of 3,000 to 7,000 in the U.S.Wikipedia
GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is a disorder affecting the nervous system that can have a variety of neurological signs and symptoms. About 90% of affected individuals have common GLUT1 deficiency syndrome. These individuals generally have frequent seizures (epilepsy) beginning in the first months of life. People with this form of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome may have developmental delay or intellectual disability. Most affected individuals also have other neurological problems, such as stiffness caused by abnormal tensing of the muscles (spasticity), difficulty in coordinating movements (ataxia), and speech difficulties (dysarthria). Some experience episodes of confusion, lack of energy (lethargy), headaches, or muscle twitches (myoclonus), particularly during periods without food (fasting).GHR
About 10% of individuals with GLUT1 deficiency syndrome have a form of the disorder often known as non-epileptic GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, which is usually less severe than the common form. People with the non-epileptic form do not have seizures, but they may still have developmental delay and intellectual disability. Most have movement problems such as ataxia or involuntary tensing of various muscles (dystonia); the movement problems may be more pronounced than in the common form.GHR
GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is caused by mutations in the SLC2A1 gene, located on chromosome 1. This condition is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. About 90 percent of cases of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome result from new mutations in the gene. These cases occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. In other cases, an affected person inherits the mutation from an affected parent.GHR
In a small number of families, GLUT1 deficiency syndrome is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.GHR
A nonprofit family organization dedicated to improving the lives of those in the GLUT1 community is the GLUT1 Foundation. While there is currently no cure for Glut1 deficiency, a recommended standard treatment is a ketogenic diet, which the GLUT1 Foundation says helps improve most symptoms for most patients.