Traditionally divided into Endurance and Power (often called Strength). Numerous other factors influence athletic performance, with differing contributions from genes and environment. The "The human gene map for performance and health-related fitness phenotypes: the 2006-2007 update" [PMID 19123262] is currently latest edition of regularily updated summary of known genetic contributions. A student presentation from Stanford's 2012 Gene210: Genetics and Personalized Medicine  provides a good overview of current state of knowledge.
In "Can we predict top-level sports performance in power vs endurance events? A genetic approach." [PMID 20459474] 153 world-class athletes of same ethnic origin were classified with a stepwise regression analysis finding rs1800795 (IL6-174 G/C), rs1208 (NAT2 K268R) and rs2070744 (NOS3-786 T/C) polymorphisms significantly predicted (21% contribution) sport performance (model χ(2) =25.3, df=3, P-value <0.001). "On sports and genes" [PMID 22762737] presents a 2012 summary of the most commonly studies polymorphisms ACE-rs4340, ACTN3-rs1815739, NOS3-rs2070744 and PPARA-rs4253778 in context of endurance vs. power.
[PMID 22762737] On sports and genes.
[PMID 20459474] Can we predict top-level sports performance in power vs endurance events? A genetic approach.
[PMID 19123262] The human gene map for performance and health-related fitness phenotypes: the 2006-2007 update.