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Like PON1, variations in PON2, the paraoxonase 2 gene, have been linked to several medical conditions.
Paraoxonases are esterases, a complex family of enzymes involved in breaking down chemicals including several types of pesticides and pharmaceutical drugs, and also involved in protecting both high- and low-density lipoproteins from oxidation. Individuals with less paraoxonase activity appear to be more susceptible to Heart disease, pesticide poisoning, atherosclerosis and Diabetes.
[PMID 16822964] rs12704795, originally known as rs17876088 is associated with ALS (Lou Gehrig's). This variation occurs in the PON2 gene, which encodes a protein involved in the detoxification of certain environmental toxins.
[PMID 9329371] reports that a common variation present at amino acid 148 of the PON2 protein, rs12026, exacerbates glycemia in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).
[PMID 19840942] reports that inheriting the Cys form encoded by PON2 rs7493 results in impaired lactonase activity.