|(A;A)||increased risk for alcohol or drug dependence; increased agreeableness (?)|
|(A;C)||normal; increased agreeableness (?)|
In a study of 500+ patients with either alcohol dependence or drug dependence, rs1800759 was the most significant ADH4 SNP to be associated (in a recessive manner) with increased risk for either condition, at least in Caucasians.[PMID 16237392]
In another study, a five-factor model of personality in 243 subjects with substance dependence (175 European Americans [EAs] and 68 African Americans [AAs]), along with 296 healthy control subjects (256 EAs and 40 AAs), was conducted in association with an ADH4 SNP survey. rs1800759(A) alleles and (A;A) genotypes A/A were significantly associated with agreeableness scores.[PMID 17069770]
[PMID 19925625] Cluster Headache is Associated With the Alcohol Dehydrogenase 4 (ADH4) Gene
[PMID 20626721] Association of ADH4 genetic variants with alcohol dependence risk and related phenotypes: results from a larger multicenter association study
[PMID 22232963] [Research on associations between selected polymorphisms of genes DRD2, 5HTT, GRIK3, ADH4 and alcohol dependence syndrome]
[PMID 16685648] Diplotype trend regression analysis of the ADH gene cluster and the ALDH2 gene: multiple significant associations with alcohol dependence.
[PMID 17185388] Multiple ADH genes modulate risk for drug dependence in both African- and European-Americans.
[PMID 17273965] Evidence of positive selection on a class I ADH locus.
[PMID 18801187] Recessive genetic mode of an ADH4 variant in substance dependence in African-Americans: A model of utility of the HWD test.
[PMID 18996923] Associations of ADH and ALDH2 gene variation with self report alcohol reactions, consumption and dependence: an integrated analysis.
[PMID 19193628] ADH single nucleotide polymorphism associations with alcohol metabolism in vivo.
[PMID 29318394] Genetic association of HCRTR2, ADH4 and CLOCK genes with cluster headache: a Chinese population-based case-control study.