Pregnancy is the period from conception to birth, the state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus, or several embryos, within the female body.
Among medical conditions related to pregnancy are pre-eclampsia, premature birth, recurrent miscarriage and Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.
Preeclampsia is a disorder during pregnancy that is charazterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. Untreated gestational diabetes increases the risk of preeclampsia and premature birth.
[PMID 23690305] Genetic variants and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.
[PMID 22233651] A genome-wide association study of gestational diabetes mellitus in Korean women.
[PMID 19002430] Type 2 diabetes-associated genetic variants discovered in the recent genome-wide association studies are related to gestational diabetes mellitus in the Korean population.
[PMID 18984664] Common type 2 diabetes risk gene variants associate with gestational diabetes.
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is a liver disorder occuring during pregnancy. The conditions can cause severe itchiness and yellowing.
[PMID 18987030] Contribution of variant alleles of ABCB11 to susceptibility to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.
[PMID 17997497] Association of the multidrug-resistance-associated protein gene (ABCC2) variants with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.
Pre-eclampsia or preeclampsia is a complication of pregnancy, a serious hypertensive disorder, where a pregnant woman develops high blood pressure (hypertension) and / or high levels of protein in urea (proteinuria). This condition may also appear after giving birth (postpartum preeclampsia), The causes of preeclampsia are not well understood. There are numerous studies about the genetic basis of preeclampsia.
[PMID 29967039] Gene-Centric Analysis of Preeclampsia Identifies Maternal Association at PLEKHG1.
[PMID 29357674] Associating Symptom Phenotype and Genotype in Preeclampsia.
[PMID 29196994] Genetic Approaches in Preeclampsia.
[PMID 28611769] Analysis of Complement C3 Gene Reveals Susceptibility to Severe Preeclampsia.
[PMID 27755385] The antihypertensive MTHFR gene polymorphism rs17367504-G is a possible novel protective locus for preeclampsia..
[PMID 23976997] The common variant rs11646213 is associated with preeclampsia in Han Chinese women.
[PMID 23551011] Genome-wide association study of pre-eclampsia detects novel maternal single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy-number variants in subsets of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study cohort.
[PMID 22432041] Genome-wide association scan identifies a risk locus for preeclampsia on 2q14, near the inhibin, beta B gene.
[PMID 15806103] Maternal segregation of the Dutch preeclampsia locus at 10q22 with a new member of the winged helix gene family.
Premature birth or preterm birth means the birth of a baby befoer 37 weeks gestational age.
[PMID 28598419] Genome-wide approach identifies a novel gene-maternal pre-pregnancy BMI interaction on preterm birth.
[PMID 25599974] A genome-wide association study of early spontaneous preterm delivery.
[PMID 25264875] Pathway analysis of genetic factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth and pre-labor preterm rupture of membranes.
[PMID 23613933] X-chromosomal maternal and fetal SNPs and the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery in a Danish/Norwegian genome-wide association study.
[PMID 23445776] Genome-wide association studies in preterm birth: implications for the practicing obstetrician-gynaecologist.
[PMID 23227263] A potential novel spontaneous preterm birth gene, AR, identified by linkage and association analysis of X chromosomal markers.
[PMID 18818748] Preterm birth in Caucasians is associated with coagulation and inflammation pathway gene variants.
[PMID 18787196] Segment-specific genetic effects on carotid intima-media thickness: the Northern Manhattan study.
[PMID 17667860] Toll-like receptor 2 polymorphism is associated with preterm birth.
[PMID 16938879] A functional SNP in the promoter of the SERPINH1 gene increases risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes in African Americans.
Recurrent miscarriage means three or more consecutive pregnancy losses.
[PMID 22457663] Genetics of recurrent miscarriage: challenges, current knowledge, future directions.
[PMID 21257601] A genome-wide scan in affected sibling pairs with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage suggests genetic linkage.
[PMID 17997497] A study of forty-seven single nucleotide polymorphisms among recurrent miscarriage using classification and regression tree analysis.
Twinning and multiple births
Multiple birth means a mother delivers two or more babies. Born babies can be identical (monozygotic) or non-identical (fraternal ,dizygotic for twins). E.g. identical twins happen when a single egg cell is fertilized by a single sperm sell and then this fertilized embryo splits into two. Non-identical twins happen when two separate egg cells are fertilized by two sperm cells. The reason for multiple births is complex, both genetic and environmental factors can affect.
[PMID 27132594] Identification of Common Genetic Variants Influencing Spontaneous Dizygotic Twinning and Female Fertility.
[PMID 18024802] Dizygotic twinning.
Some relevant SNPs
Based on scientific publications e.g. these SNPs seem to have relevance to pregnancy.
rs4696480 in fetal DNA
rs5743708 in fetal DNA
rs17121510 in fetal DNA
- Gestational diabetes
- Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy
- Multiple birth
- Preterm birth
- Recurrent miscarriage